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On this day in 1905, the British Viceroy Lord Curzon announced the partition of Bengal. About 3 months after this announcement, Bengal was partitioned on 16 October 1905. This was the biggest conspiracy of the British to break the Hindu-Muslim unity of India.
In fact, the Bengal of that time was made up of today’s West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Assam and Bangladesh. In terms of area, this area was as big as France, but its population was many times more. The British attributed the administrative difficulties in handling such a large area as the reason behind the partition and said that the British government was forced to do so. Administrative work would be better after partition, but Indians had understood the hidden conspiracy behind this decision.
In fact, the eastern part of Bengal was Muslim dominated, while the western part had a higher population of Hindus. Curzon merged Muslim majority East Bengal with Assam and made a separate province. Its headquarter was made Dhaka. On the other hand the rest of Bengal was named as West Bengal. Overall, the aim of the British was to make two different religions in the two provinces a majority.
Bengal was the center of national consciousness at that time. To destroy this consciousness, Curz on wanted to divide Bengal. Indians had understood that this is the divide and rule policy of the British. So this decision started protesting across the country.
The Swadeshi movement started after the decision of partition of Bengal and the spinning wheel became a symbol of this movement throughout the country.
Congress started the Swadeshi movement. Holi of foreign clothes started burning all over the country. Rabindranath Tagore also wrote ‘Amar Shonar Bangla’ in protest against this decision of the British, which later became the national anthem of Bangladesh.
Indians were so hurt by the partition of Bengal that the National Day of Mourning was celebrated on 16 October 1905. Hindus and Muslims tied Rakhi to each other to show their unity. However, such widespread protests had no effect on Lord Curzon and Bengal was partitioned on 16 October 1905.
1944: Hitler attacked
German dictator Adolf Hitler was attacked on 20 July 1944. However, Hitler suffered minor injuries in this attack and survived. This attack on Hitler was done by Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg of his army.
Stauffenberg was posted to Tunisia in 1943. Stauffenberg lost an eye and an arm in an attack here. During this time Stauffenberg came in contact with an organization whose purpose was to kill Hitler.
In 1944 Stauffenberg was made chief of the German Replacement Army. Now they could easily meet Hitler. He had got this easy opportunity to assassinate Hitler. Hitler had built a command post in the forests of East Prussia. Here Hitler used to meet daily.
Nazi Party officials investigating the scene after the blast.
Stauffenberg planned that Hitler would be killed in an explosion during this meeting. For this, he planted a bomb in a suitcase and kept this suitcase at the meeting place. Hitler’s meeting was going on when this bomb exploded.
Stauffenberg wanted this suitcase to be as close to Hitler as possible, but just before the bomb exploded, someone had put the suitcase under a table. Because of this, the effect of the bomb was reduced. Although four people were killed in the attack, Hitler suffered minor injuries. Stauffenberg and the rest were later captured and murdered.
1969: Man’s first step on the moon
On July 20, 1969, American astronaut Neil Armstrong made history by stepping on the surface of the Moon. He flew into space on 16 July via Apollo 11. When he sent a message to Kennedy Space Center after 4 days of travel – ‘We have landed’, then the world’s happiness knew no bounds.
Neil Armstrong on the moon.
He stepped on the surface of the moon and said, ‘It is a small step for one human being, but a big leap for the whole human race.’ He was accompanied by another astronaut, Buzz Aldrin. Both stayed on the surface of the moon for about two and a half hours. On July 24, Neil Armstrong returned to Earth.
The day of July 20 is remembered in history because of what other important events…
2005: Gay marriage is legalized in Canada. Canada became the fourth country in the world to do so.
1997: An agreement was reached between India and Bangladesh on the sharing of Teesta river water.
1976: America’s Viking landed on the surface of Mars. This was the first landing of a spacecraft on Mars.
1968: The International Special Olympic Games were held for the first time in Chicago.
1296: After the assassination of Jalaluddin Khilji, Alauddin Khilji declared himself the ruler of Delhi.