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Exactly 74 years ago today, it was announced to split India into two pieces. On 3 June 1947, the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten announced the bifurcation of India into India and Pakistan. This partition made millions of people refugees in their own country. It is said that during this period about 1.25 crore people were displaced. This was the largest displacement in history for any political reason. Lakhs of people died in the riots during partition.
India became independent on 15 August 1947, but with this independence, India was also partitioned. On 14 August 1947, a day before India’s independence, Pakistan became a new country.
In fact, after the end of the Second World War, on one hand, the voices for independence were rising in the country, while on the other side religious forces were also raising their heads. There were communal riots everywhere. There was an atmosphere of turmoil in the country. Finally in February 1947, the British government announced the independence of India, the responsibility of which was handed over to the then Viceroy of India, Lord Mountbatten.
Jawaharlal Nehru and Liaquat Ali Khan came to pick up Mountbatten at Palam airport. After independence, Nehru became the Prime Minister of India and Liaquat Ali Khan of Pakistan.
Mountbatten came up with a plan whereby he proposed that the provinces be declared independent successor states and then allowed to choose whether to join the Constituent Assembly. This plan was called ‘Dickie Bird Plan’. Jawaharlal Nehru opposed this plan and said that it would split the country into pieces and create an atmosphere of anarchy. This is from April 1947.
After the announcement of partition, there was an atmosphere of panic in the whole country. Lakhs of people were displaced from India to Pakistan and from Pakistan to India.
Mountbatten then, after long discussions with the leaders of the Congress and the Muslim League, presented a plan to divide India into two countries on 3 June 1947. He said that partition is the last option to solve India’s political problem.
It was said in the plan that two countries would be created by dividing India into two different parts. One India and the other Pakistan. Both the countries will have separate constitution and separate Constituent Assembly will be formed. The princely states of India were given freedom to either become part of Pakistan or remain in India of their own free will. If you do not want to meet both, you can remain independent. On 18 July 1947, the British Parliament passed this plan.
India got independence from the Mountbatten Plan, but along with it a complex problem like Kashmir also arose, which is still a big reason for dispute between the two countries.
The launch of Operation Blue Star, which led to the assassination of Indira Gandhi
The Indian Army started Operation Blue Star on this day in 1984. The Harimandir Sahib, or Golden Temple complex, located in Amritsar, Punjab, was occupied by Khalistan supporter Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his supporters. This operation, which started to free the Golden Temple from the occupation of Khalistanis, lasted for 3 days. More than 500 people died in this. These included army personnel and officers.
It is said that the Sikhs suffered heavy losses after the partition of the country. Half of Punjab went to Pakistan as well as Lahore, the holy city of Sikhs. The demand for a separate nation started gaining momentum even among the hurt Sikhs. In 1966, Haryana was separated from Punjab on the basis of language. Along with this, the Union Territory of Chandigarh was also made. In the 1980s, the demand for an autonomous state as ‘Khalistan’ started gaining momentum. This was given the name of Khalistan movement and with this the popularity of Jarnail Singh Bhindrawala also started increasing.
Gradually the movement turned violent. When the situation got out of control, the central government imposed President’s rule in Punjab. In 1983, Punjab’s DIG Atwal was assassinated in the Golden Temple complex itself. In the same year, Bhindranwala made the Golden Temple his home. There he started collecting weapons and preparing to convert the Golden Temple into a fort for himself.
Indira Gandhi visited the Golden Temple after the operation was completed.
Now Bhindranwala was on the target of the government. The government planned Operation Blue Star to free the Golden Temple from the possession of terrorists, the responsibility of which was handed over to Commander Major General Kuldeep Singh Brar. On June 3, the government sent army commandos to the Golden Temple. The preparedness of the Khalistanis was more than the government had expected, so tanks had to be used in the operation. After heavy firing, Bhindranwala was finally killed and on 7 June the Indian Army took control of the Golden Temple.
This operation generated anger against Prime Minister Indira Gandhi in the Sikh community, the result of which came out only after 4 months. On 31 October 1984, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of her own Sikh security personnel.
Due to which other important events in history is remembered on 3rd June…
2014: Cabinet minister Gopinath Munde died in a road accident.
2009: Meira Kumar was elected Lok Sabha speaker. She became the first woman speaker of Lok Sabha.
1999: During the Kargil war, Flight Captain Nachiketa Rao, who went to the Pakistani border, was handed over by Pakistan to India.
1965: Ed became the first American astronaut to walk in white space.
1962: Air France flight 007 crashes at Orly airport. Of the 132 passengers on board, 130 died.
1930: Born George Fernandes, former Defense Minister and socialist leader.
1924: Former Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi was born.
1915: The British Government conferred the title of Knighthood on Rabindranath Tagore. Tagore returned this title in protest against the Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
1890: Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan was born.